The column is vertical member which carry load. Column transfer the load from slab & beam to the foundation of footing. There are many types of columns.
A column in engineering is such a structural element which transmits or transfers the load of structure above to structure element to footing through compression. It is used for support to the beam, arch or which the upper part of walls, slab, lintel and ceiling rests. Column is also used for decorating purpose, nonstructural member or increases the structural vision.
Types of column
Generally column are divided into four types,
- Based on the shape
- Based on the type of Reinforcement
- Based on the type of loading
- Based on the slenderness ratio
Based on Shaped:
Column are divided 8 types based on shaped.
Rectangle or square column:
This type of column used in the construction of building, these type of column are provided only the shape of the room is a square or rectangular shape. Eg. – Residential building, Commercial building etc.
This type of column mostly used in piling and elevation of the buildings.
They are used depending on the design requirement and in the construction of bridge, etc.
It showcasing the column is in V shape, generally used if the shape of the room is in trapezoidal, these column requires more amount of concrete when compared to the other column.
They are generally used in the corners of the boundary wall and has same features of a rectangular or square column. These types of column are very less or rarely used.
It has six sides and it gives good pictorial view, used in elevation. It is used to give a good look, generally provided in open area.
Arch type column:
These type of column used when the room has a shaped of an arch. It is rarely used as it possess very difficult in casting
These type of column generally used in the heavy carried structure. Eg.- Flyovers, Bridges
Based on the Reinforcement:
Based on the Reinforcement Column are divided into three type.
Main longitudinal bar of column are confined within closely spaced lateral size.
Main longitudinal bars of the column are enclosed with in closely spaced and continuously wound spiral reinforcement.
longitudinal reinforcement is in the form of structural steel section or pipe with or without longitudinal bar.
Based on the loading:
These type of column are two types of columns.
Axially loaded column:
Compressive force coincides with the center of gravity of the cross section of the column.
Uniaxially or Eccentrically loaded column:
Compressive force does not coincides with the center of gravity of the cross section of the column.
Based on the slenderness ratio:
According to this types of columns based on slenderness ratio are two type.
Ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12.
Ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is exceed 12.